Wednesday, March 24, 2010

Music for Friday: It's Too Late – Carole King

Although it is a little late, it keeps on being a Friday and that for a pair of weeks means that we have a song to be shared. This week, making use of the delay we recover a vinyl of Carole King titled Tapestry published in March, 1971. We are with one of 15 álbumes more sold of the 70s with more than 10 million copies behind him and in the podemos to find songs as I feel the Earth Move or Will you love me tomorrow (song that occupies the position 125 in the Top 500 of the best songs of all the times according to the Magazine Rolling Stone). In this album also the song includes that today I propose to you: It's too beats, although in our case half an hour still stays so that stop being Viernes! A calm topic rewarded with a Grammy and it keeps on being in the Top 500, although 469 does it in the position. For that him Carole King does not sound of anything, in the public 1974 an album called Wrap Around Joy who was including a topic called Jazzman and of which we could listen to a version interpreted by Lisa Simpsons in The Simpsons.

Without much ado verbiage presented you to Carole King and his It's To Late.

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Tuesday, March 23, 2010

The indivisible atom

These atoms move in the infinite gap,
separated some of others and different between themselves
in figures, sizes, position and order;
after surprises some others they clash
and some of them are expelled
by means of shaken at random in any direction,
while others,
interlacing mutually in consonance
with the congruity of his figures, sizes,
positions and arrangings,
they stay close
and this way they cause the birth of the compound bodies.

Democrito – Simplicio, Of it fall down 242, 21


Atoms as model átomico of Dalton

The chemistry was already beginning having fundamental laws that were allowing to study much better the chemical reactions, the compounds and elements. But, the question that us still had not been solved was: the elements, these substances that could not decompose, of that they were formed? What was differing to the hydrogen of the sulfur? Or to the iron or of the oxygen?

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In the XIVth Century aC, Mosquito of Sidón, a thinker of Phoenician origin raised for the first time the thought atomista that then the preSocratic Greek philosophers Leucipo would recover, 1000 years later, (Vth century) and his beginner founding Demócrito de Abdera (470/460aC - 360/370aC) of the school atomista. This school was defending the concept that the whole matter is formed by a miscellany of unchangeable and eternal original elements, infinitely small, imperceptible for the senses and indivisible. This concept is born of the vision of the world that tapeworm Democrito, for which the reality splits into two elements or causes: What is (το ον), formed by atoms (of the Latin atomum, and this one of the Greek , that it means without parts) eternal and indivisible; and what is not (το μηον), represented by the gap. In spite of well directed that his ideas were going, it did not have any scientific foundation and I remain eclipsed by the theory aristotélica of four elements.Es known also, that in parallel in the India, the philosopher and alchemist Kanada (~600aC) was already representing the thought atomista and the school founded the philosophical school Vaisheshika at the end of the VIIth century, which although it had differences in some points of view, like the theological one, also many similarities had atomista of Demócrito, as for example, from the physical point of view.

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The centuries happened and, how we have seen in the chapter of the elements, the model aristotélico did not begin staggering up to good brought in the XVIIIth century thanks to the advances of Boyle, Lavoisier and Proust. At the beginning of 1800, it became fashionable in England to inhale nitrous and enclosed oxide there were done “parties of the gas of the laugh”, in that that volunteers were inhaling the gas to entertain the public with the staggerings. The curious thing of this, the fact is that they did not realize that the nitrous oxide, to part of being an "entertaining" drug, also it was possible to use anesthetic how until 1846. At the end of 1799, the young man Humphry Davy (1778 - 1829) deposited in the Real Institution of London how teacher of Chemistry and soon, became famous for discovering the potassium, the sodium, the magnesium, the calcium, the strontium and the aluminum, one behind other. The secret of his productivity was residing in a skill that it designed applying electricity to the substances and to which it called electrolysis. Unfortunately also his addiction went down in history to the gas of the laugh (3 or 4 meetings a day); and one believes that it was the cause of his death in 1829.

The chemistry had advanced, but the absence of scientific institutions, mass media and organization had complicated his development; and at the beginning of the XIXth, it was more for business men (you dye, carbones, …) than for scientists. In spite of this absence of communication, there was a series of personages being employed at her with more seriousness than Davy.

We recover Robert Boyle in this point, to do an incision in his studies on the gases. In 1659, with the help of Robert Hooke, it improved the vacuum pump of Otto von Guericke creating the machine Boyleana or pneumatic machine that allowed him to do multitude of experiments in the gap. The first one was to demonstrate the idea of Galilean of that, in the gap, a pen and a piece of lead they fall down at the same speed. It demonstrated also that the sound is not transmitted in the gap, but the most important discovery was that the volume occupied by a gas is inversely proportional to the pressure to which it is submitted and which if we stop exercising pressure, the gas recovers his original volume. This proportionality relation is known nowadays as the Boyle law and it led it to recovering the ideas of Demócrito on the atoms. Boyle came to the conclusion that the compressible air was formed by minuscule particles separated by empty space and that, on having applied pressure, we were reducing this space between particles and for it they were reducing the volume. All these ideas of fueron published in his work New Experiments PhysicoMechanical touching the spring of air and its effects physical-mechanical New experiments on the elasticity of the air and his effects – and I redeem an important role in the atomic conception of the matter.

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One century later, there appeared John Dalton (1766 - 1844), naturalist, chemist, mathematician, British meteorologist and teacher, between others, of James Prescott Joule (famous person for his studies on the magnetism and the conservation of energy). He was suffering a strange well-known illness as acromatopsia, the inability to distinguish the colors, and he studied it in depth going so far as to publish “extraordinary Facts relative to the Vision of Colors” in 1794. Further on, this illness was called a color blindness in his honor.

His special interest in the meteorology led him to realizing numerous remarks and measurements, topcoat, related to the ambience. It discovered that the rain was caused by a change of temperature and not of pressure, as he believed until now. Nevertheless, what more was fascinating age as the ambience had such a homogeneous appearance being a gas miscellany - a homogeneous miscellany of nitrogen, oxygen and water vapor between others, as we saw in the first chapter – of different thickness, that is to say, that a few gases were weighing more than others. Continuing in this line, it discovered that different samples of air, taken to different heights, were showing the same proportion of the every some of the gases that were composing it, when the logical thing was to think that the gases as the oxygen that were weighing less it would be floating over those who were weighing like the nitrogen, in the same way that the oil floats on the water. If Dalton could have obtained air samples to top heights, there would be account of which the composition if that changes. His interest in the topic and his numerous remarks they yielded his fruits: in 1803, there postulated the law of partial pressures that it was establishing that the pressure of a gas miscellany that they do not react between them, is equal to the sum of the partial pressures that each of the gases would exercise if they were occupying the whole space to constant temperature.

Dalton was accumulating a lot of experimental information and he tried to look for model capable of explaining them. Curiously, the first thing that was studying his information was that the elements could get together with different simple proportionality relations and that every combination was giving place to a different compound; and that it postulated like the law of multiple proportions.

Law of multiple proportions

When two elements get together, if we take a fixed quantity of one of the elements, changing the quantity of the second one we obtain different compounds and this quantity is proportional to that of the first element in a simple entire number.

If we combine the carbon with the oxygen with a proportion of masses of 3 of carbon and 8 of oxygen, we obtain the Dioxide of Carbon (CO2, the gas that we expel on having breathed); nevertheless, if we combine 3 of carbon with 4 of oxygen, we obtain the Carbon monoxide (CO, a poisonous gas).

In this moment, Dalton had to find a theory that was capable of explaining and of unifying 3 laws that were forming the base of the Chemistry of the epoch: the law of constant composition of Proust, the law of conservation of the mass of Lavoisier and his recent law of multiple proportions. But the search finished with the presentation atomic theory in 1808, a model who was explaining 3 laws and the phenomena observed in the gases; and from which we can emphasize the following assumptions:

Atomic theory of Dalton

The whole matter consists of indestructible and extremely small particles that called atoms. The chemical reactions imply atoms rearranging, neither are created atoms nor are destroyed.


The atoms of the same elements are similar in mass and other properties, but they are different from the atoms of other elements.


On having got together in compounds, the atoms support a few simple proportions; and different provide s of every type of atom they generate different compounds. The equal atoms of a certain compound sound in mass and other properties. The proportion of atoms of oxygen and of carbon in the carbon monoxide is of 1:1; in the carbon dioxide this relation is 2:1, two atoms of oxygen and one of carbon.

If we take the point one, we see that Dalton's theory proposes that during a chemical reaction, they neither the atoms nor create the mass is not even destroyed, therefore, there remains invariable and is ratified the law of conservation of mass of Lavoisier. If we join it with the second one, there is ratified the definition of element proposed by Boyle: an element is formed by the only type of atoms and but nevertheless, does not differentiate the molecules of the atoms.

Every element is formed by the same type of atoms that have a concrete mass (I) and when they form a compound, these support a proportion for every compound (III), therefore, a compound will always have the same relation of masses of his components verifying this way the law of definite proportions of Proust. Jöns Jacob Berzelius (1779 - 1848) verified with an experiment that 10g of Lead they always get together with 1,56g of Sulfur forming 11,56g of Sulfide of Lead; it realized numerous tests modifying the mass one of two elements, and it was always obtaining the same compound quantity: If it was combining 18g of Lead with 1,56g of Sulfur and kept on obtaining 11,56g of Sulfide of Lead and 8g of separate Lead; if it was combining 10g of Lead with more sulfur, for example 3g, and again it was obtaining 11,56 g of Sulfide of Lead and the rest of 1,44g of Sulfur. This experiment was verifying the law of constant composition proposed by Proust, but also it was verifying the model proposed by Dalton: If we suppose that the Lead atom weighs some 6 times more than that of Sulfur (10 / 1,56 = 6,41), we have that the Sulfide of Lead is composed by molecules formed by an atom of lead and an atom of sulfur, by the qu and if we add an excess of some of the two it will not form more compound, since it will not have in spite of whom getting together.


Today we know that the sulfur atom has an atomic mass of 32,065u and lead of 207,2u, for the calculation of which the lead atom was weighing 6,41 times more than the sulfur that we have come earlier with the Berzelius experiment was approaching very much the real value (207,2 / 32,065 = 6,461). In that moment, it was impossible to determine the real weight of the atoms because he was not getting ready of means, nevertheless if they could determine the relative weight based on the quantities of mass of an element that were getting together with a fixed mass of other. Dalton and Berzelius, determined the weight of many atoms using how unit the mass of an atom of hydrogen, which at that time one already knew that it was the lightest. Dalton prepared a table of relative masses of the atoms of each of the elements like part of his theory, and although most of the calculations was incorrect (like for example the oxygen, which according to his calculations was 7 times heavier than the hydrogen, when in fact it is 16 times heavier), it was one it managed bearing in mind the instruments which he had. On the other hand, in his book also they can be the graphic representation of the atoms some elements and the molecules of compounds (binary, ternary, …). The calculations were improving with the time, and in 1830 Berzelius published a table with the atomic masses of 54 elements that were approaching very much the one that we know today.

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Finally, the third assumption of Dalton's theory also explains the law of multiple proportions: If we consider the oxides (combination of an element with oxygen), we have that 1g of Carbon it gets together with 1,333g of Oxygen forming Carbon monoxide; but if we double the Oxygen quantity (2,666g) and supporting 1g of Carbon, the combination forms Dioxide of Carbon. At atomic level, we extract that an oxygen atom can get together with the carbon in a relation 1:1 (a carbon atom with one of oxygen) forming Carbon monoxide; but also it can get together in a relation 1:2 (a carbon atom with two of oxygen) forming Dioxide of Carbon.

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ááááá Louis Joseph Gay-Lussac (1778 - 1850) worked actively studying the behavior of the gases, his volumes and his temperatures. With his experiments, and the works of Jacques Charles that were relating the volume to the temperature; he published in 1802 that if we support to constant pressure an ideal gas, the volume and the temperature are related to a constant of direct proportionality and that it called Charles's Law. Further on, in 1805 it postulated the Law of Gay-Lussac: if we support the constant volume, the quotient between the pressure and the temperature stays constant. Together with the Boyle-Mariott law – to constant temperature, the volume of a gas is inversely proportional to the pressure, to constant temperature – they were establishing the beginning of the behavior of the ideal gases. In 1808, it demonstrated experimentally that, to equal pressure, a quantity of volume of oxygen was getting together completely with the double of volume of hydrogen forming steam it waters down; for example, two liters of hydrogen it combines with one liter of oxygen forming two liters of water vapor. Similar experiments with other gases, reached with the publication of the law of the volumes in combination that it was postulating that the gases react if getting together and obtaining volumes in proportion to small simple numbers.


Nevertheless, the experimental Gay-Lussac results were not agreeing with the atomic model of Dalton. For the last one, the gaseous elements were necessary simple and constituted by only one atom; and the current compounds like the water, they were formed only by two different atoms. Therefore, the water was a binary compound: a quantity of volume of hydrogen was getting together completely with the same oxygen volume giving place to a water vapor volume.


In 1811, an Italian called Lorenzo Romano Amedeo Carlo Avogadro (1776-1856) solved the quandary in which Gay-Lussac and Dalton were proposing the piece that was missing to the puzzle: First, the minimal unit in a chemical reaction is the molecule and it can split into atoms during the reaction; Second, two equal volumes of different gases, are of the type that there are, they contain the same number of molecules if the conditions of temperature and pressure are the same.

Hypothesis of Avogadro

ááááá Two equal volumes of different gases have they are formed by the same number of molecules if we keep the pressure and the temperature invariable. If we have two bottles with the same volume, a flood of helium and other one of oxygen, to the same temperature and with the same pressure, the two will have the same number of molecules. Although, in this case the number of atoms of oxygen will be the double, since the molecule of stable oxygen is formed by two oxygen atoms.

With to water formation he would explain himself of the following way: The oxygen molecules separate in atoms and later they get together with molecules of H2 forming molecules of H2O. If we speak about volumes, an oxygen volume they get together with two hydrogen volumes, forming two water volumes The combination reason in volumes is of 2:1:2 as it was observed in the Gay-Lussac experiments.


From this hypothesis, deduces another well-known relation how Avogardo law:

Law of Avogadro

To temperature and constant pressure, the volume of a gas is straight proportional to the gas quantity. Namely if the number of gas masses (n) doubles, the volume doubles.

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Nevertheless, Avogadro was an individual who was working only, he was supporting very few mail with other scientists, was publishing few articles and was not attending to many scientists. If there is this we add that in this moment there was no many organization in the chemistry as science; 50 years happened until the Gerhardt works came, Laurent and Willamson on the organic chemistry corroborated the law of Avogadro and the diffusion done by the Italian chemist Stanislao Cannizzaro. It was the last one, the fact that in 1858 Sunto published a titled memory “I gave a Corsican one gave Philosophy chimica” in it was using the Avogadro hypothesis to measure the molecular weight of several gases and to determine his composition from these measurements, and was telling that the exceptions that were taking place in some substances that it was not fulfilling in this hypothesis were caused because some molecules were dissociating. In 1860, four years after the Avogadro death, Cannizzaro gave one a conference on his studies and hypothesis of Avogadro, how to use it and because it was so necessary to differentiate the atoms and the molecules, managing to convince big part of the assistants that in turn, they facilitated the publication for the scientific community.

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Further on, thanks to the new chemical skills, they tried to do measurements to know the number of molecules that existed in a concrete gas quantity and that nowadays we know as number of Avogadro in his honor. The first attempt was carried out by the physicist and chemist Austrian Johann Josef Loschmidt in 1865 calculating for the first time the average value of the size of the molecules of the air and with this fact he estimated the number of molecules that exist in one cubic centimeter of air. This number indicates the thickness of the particles in an ideal gas and is known nowadays how the Loschmidt constant.

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Nevertheless, although the number of Loschmidt was approximately proportional to the Avogadro constant, it was not until 1908 when Jean Baptiste Perrin published his investigations on the Brownian movement of the particles in the water in which the Avogadro constant was calculated of exact form. The movement Browniando is the random movement that is observed in some microscopic particles when they are in a fluid way (for example, the movement of the pollen in a water drop), and it is caused by the agitation of the molecules of the liquid (we remember that in the liquids the particles can vibrate but not move freely). Perrin, was rewarded by the Nobel Prize of Physics in 1926 by his works on the discontinuity of the matter and the discovery of the balance of sedimentation.

Number of Avogadro: NA

It indicates the number of elementary units (atoms, molecules, ions, …) that are in a mol of any substance. In principle, a mol of one substances was the quantity of this substance in which there is an equal number of elementary units to the number of molecules that there is in 2,016 grams of gas hydrogen, but nowadays the equivalence is used with the number of atoms that there is in 12 grams of carbon 12. Also it is known that a mol of ideal gas has a volume of 22,4 L to 0 ºC from temperature and to 1 pressure ambience.

NA = 6,02214179 × 1023 elementary units / mol

To do an idea to us of how big this number is, we can say that it is equivalent to the quantity of necessary cups to empty the Pacific Ocean or of canisters of refreshments that we would need to cover all the ground piled up up to a height of 320km.

At the beginning of the sXIX, thanks to the electrolysis, new elements were discovered and they discarding some of the substances considered by Lavoisier. In 1830, already had been approximately 50 elements; and in the decade of 1860 this number was overcoming the 60 thanks to the use of the spectroscope of Gustav R. Kirchhoff and Robert W. Bunsen.

We will speak about how they decided to classify and arrange all these elements before jumping to divide the atom in protons, neutrons and electrons; and of exhibiting us to the radiation, the x-rays and other types of beams.

Previous chapters Introduction to the Chemistry: Properties of the matter

The elements: From the fire to the phlogiston

The new modern Chemistry

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Saturday, March 20, 2010

Music for Friday: Variations – Andrew Lloyd Webber

This Friday we have a much more classic proposal led by a chello. The any not one, the cello protagonist pertence to Julian Loyd Webber, brother of Andrew Loyd Webber: composer born in London on March 22, 1948 with 3 awards Grammy, 1 Óscar, 1 Emmy Internacional and 1 golden Balloon – between others. He is one of the most important musical theatrical composers of the XXth with 16th Century, two sound-tracks and a mass of Requiem behind him. The song that I propose to you corresponds to the first minutes of his joint album, of Julian and Andrew, Variations published in 1978 in which there predominates over a perfect miscellany between Rock and musician Clásica who is to take the hat from him. The disc has a duration of 34 minutes and to enjoy it it is necessary to listen to point because none of the songs has waste. Anyhow, so that you do an idea to yourselves, I leave an extract of the disc to you:

Also I leave the linkage to you so that you could listen to the finished disc and understand about that I am speaking to you, the disc is beautiful.

1978 - Variations of Julian and Andrew Lloy Webber

Password to decompress it:

If the author or some “Managing Society” is against of that I promoted this disc and incited which the people to listen to it and if he likes, I bought it; that communicates it to me that I will stop doing it.

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Friday, March 19, 2010

Third Edition of the Carnival of the Physics

“I ever saw him practising either any diversion nor pastime, nor mounting on horseback to take the air, nor to walk nor playing the skittles, or another any exercise: he believed that any hour that was not dedicated to his studies was a lost hour, and he was fulfilling it so much that rarely was leaving his room except to teach in the hours prearranged where so few ones he was going to listen to him, and they even less understood him, that often for lack of listeners was speaking, for saying it this way, for the walls”.

- Description of Isaac Newton as his servant.

Source: Cosmos of Carl Sagan, cap. «The harmony of the worlds» pp 68, 69. Publishing Planet.


We use Newton's appointment again in commemoration to that his 367 would be annual (born on January 4, 1643) to announce that we already have prepared the Third Edition of the Carnival of the Physics, this time to hands of the blog Leonardo da Vinci! The idea is, if this works, that every month a blog offers himself “to organize it” and we have a monthly Carnival! This blog has already committed himself for the February edition, that in January there are examinations as you could have verified for little activity of the blog.

Without much ado preambles, all those who want to take part in this edition have only to send an email to

alfaaurigae (at) gmail (dot) com

If you do not have blog and want to publish an article, in the first edition a social network is believed Also, there is we will be able to find more information about the events, know a little more on other participants and consult previous editions. The deadline to deliver your articles is December 27! and they will be published on the 30th!

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Thursday, March 18, 2010

Turned to the walked ones

After a month of absence for examinations and the death with 21 years of a nearby relative (my cousin, Arién Arnés Valero) after fighting for one week in the UCI against an agranulocitosis, a bacterium called pseudopretty and finally, another bacterium of the hospital against which it could not.

We return to the walked ones and from now on, also we will include some articles about medicine and biology in memory of my cousin.

Arien Harness, Alba Arnés and I.

Flickr Set>

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The first Edition of the Carnival of Mathematics in Tito Eliatron Dixit

From Tito Eliatron Dixit there is born the proposal of a Carnival of the Mathematics so that the Castilian-speaking blogueros we write articles about something related to the mathematics then to compile them and to give him diffusion!

To take part, you have only to write an article in your blog related to the mathematics during the week from February 8 until February 12 and report in the blog of Tito Eliatron Dixit ( For more information, he visits the post on the carnival that is published in his blog and that "annexed" you next:

Before the tremendous reception that has shown the initiative of the Carnival of the Physics in the blogosfera of Hispanic speech, and after consulting it with a wide group of bloggers related, somehow, with the mathematics, I believe that there has come the moment to throw the Carnival of Mathematics.

It is necessary to emphasize that in the blogosfera of Hispanic speech there is no initiative of this type. Nevertheless, yes that exists in English, Carnival of Mathematics, that at the beginning of January 61 came to the edition; and in Italian, Carnevale Della Matematica, that in the middle of December 20 came to the edition.

During the week from February 8 until February 12 all those that queráis to take part, you will have to publish in your blogs an entry on mathematics in any of his aspects: publication, curiosities, investigation, appointments, images, … any thing is good, siemrpe that is related to announce the Mathematics.

On Monday, the 15th of February, in Tito Eliatron Dixit, a summary will appear with all the earnings that have been published during the previous week. If you want to appear in the list, it would request you that enviárais an e-mail to eliatron {AT} indicating that you want to take part and the blog (his direction, we go) with that you are going to do it. It is important that in the earnings that you prepare, one alludes to the Carnival of Mathematics, doing link, good to the web of the Carnival, good to the web of the blog host.

I hope that this initiative of the Carnival of Mathematics in Spanish I have half of the aftereffect that the English versions and Italian have gone so far as to have. For it, as in case of the physics and to centralize a little the contents, we have created the page of the Carnival of Mathematics in, where you can already sign up. There the same you will be able to raise also the articles with which you are going to take part in the Carnival of Mathematics. Even if you do not have blog, you can do your contribution across the same web.

Finally, it would be interesting that this initiative was not a thing of only one edition, so if you are interested in receiving future editions of the Carnival of Mathematics, you have only to contact with me, or to leave a comment in this entry, and we will be already putting dates. Perhaps 1 edition a month, would be well, but all kinds of suggestions is admitted.

Only I can only cheer you up that you inform in this initiative to spread and to announce the kind side of the Mathematics.

Tito Eliatron Dixit.

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Wednesday, March 17, 2010

The fourth Edition of the Carnival of the Physics

“In science one tries to say to the people, in a way in which they all could understand it, something that nobody ever knew earlier. The poetry is exactly the opposite”.

- Paul Dirac.

British Theoretical physicist who contributed in the development of the quantum mechanics.

Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac

We enter in February and so much the blogueros as the fans of the science we are already preparing ourselves for a new edition of the Carnival of the Physics, this time, with our blog as host! The Carnival began celebrating the month In November in Gravity Zero owing to 400 anniversary of the day in which Galileo Galilei used for the first time a telescope refractor to see the Moon, one November 30, 1609. The initiative pipe a sweeping success so we proposed to continue the Carnival and to throw it every month from a different blog: in December it was the AstrofísicayFísica blog and in January that of Leonardo da Vinci. On the other hand, also Carnival of the Physics created the social network in so that those that they do not have blog also could take part.

The functioning is the same of every month: to publish entry in your blog or in the social network of the Carnival in the possible most informative and didactic thing on some topic related to the Physics. The purpose is to show it to the public in general entertained that is the physics, the fascinating consequences that have the discoveries that have been taking place throughout the years and to demonstrate that also that the physics is not so difficult as they paint it if it is well explained itself.

If you want to take part, you have only to write an article during this February més and send the linkage to your blog before Thursday, the 25th of February so that be able to do the compilation and publish it on Sunday, the 28th! Also he would need the city where from you are posteando to publish it in the participants' map. You can send to me this information route comment in the same entry or to the mail address

Intentions to all the participants, to demonstrate it beautiful that is the nature and the laws that govern it! We release also a list of mail to improve the communication between the participants to the Carnival:

Group of Google

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Tuesday, March 16, 2010

Music for Friday: Downtown – Petula Clark

Petula Clark

As we were already saying yesterday, we return to the walked ones so like every Friday, today we have music in The song that I propose to you today belongs to a singer, actress and composer who entered the Book Guinness of world records like the most prolific British artist of all the times with more than 70 million sold discs. We speak about Petula Clark, born on November 15, 1932 in England and that during the 60s was released in the world of the music with “The Litte Shoemaker”.

Further on it saw his first numbers one in the lists with “Alone“ and “Sailor“; but his most well-known success was "Downtown" composed by Tony Hatch that placed itself in the first position of the American and British lists. The very same Frank Sinatra could not resist to do his version of this song and for the Lost followers, this song marks the beginning of the Third Period, when Juliet burns herself doing a few fairy cakes>. Right now, this song is the one that more needed to listen, but I recommend to you to look for it in Spotify and to listen to some of his topics because the truth is that it has a very agreeable voice and a few songs that fit in many situations.

Other one that I would like that escucharaís is My Love of 1965, it is more romantic but the truth is that I cannot allow listening to it.

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Activities of the Museum of the Science and Technology of Terrassa

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It is a question of a day on dedicated to Nuclear fusion as energy for the future where he will explain himself how is life right now in the career for the merger, the problematic ones that we have been for the way and which we have left for overcoming. Along the day there will be realized several papers that they were speaking to us about the project ITER and some of the used technologies, the state of the Merger in Spain and the role of the Supercomputing in the investigation.

In the evening, titled Simulaciones de Fusión will project a documentary produced by the Institute of Biocomputing and Physics of Complex Systems (BIFI) of the University of Saragossa in 3D. At the last hour, an exhibition will be inaugurated on the Merger that will last from March 4 until May 2, 2010.


On Thursday, March 4, 2010
Place: Museu of the Science i of the Skill of Catalunya (mNACTEC) Boulevard d'Ègara, 270. TERRASSA
Free inscriptions in or in the phone 93 736 89 63

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An exhibition to know the experiments that are realized in the CERN, with the intention of bringing over the physics of particles and the studies on the origin of the universe to the big public. We will discover which are the experiments that are realized at present in the CERN (European Center of Nuclear Investigation) and we will be able to get inside a recreation to real size of the underground tunnel. Also, we will find some objects that have been part of important experiments in the CERN.

So if after reading the article of the same blog about the LHC you remained with desire of more, you have until March 7 to do a visit to him.

More information

Museu of the Science i of the Skill of Catalunya (mNACTEC)

To see bigger map

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Monday, March 15, 2010

IV edition of the Carnival of the Physics

We are at the end of month and it is a pride to present to you 24 contributions of this edition of the Carnival of the Physics, doubling the participation of the two previous editions! This one we meet some recommendations of books and videos, clarifications of daily concepts that many people do not know yet, speak about some equations, we will speak about astronomy and of as this one structured everything what we know. We will understand little more dangers of the electricity and which are the causes; and we will see that the radioactivity is not so dangerous as sounds.

Carlos Ferri from Gravity Zero recommends to us the book of Sean Carol, From Eternity to Here, where we will be able to study in depth a little more the "functioning" of the time, of because he has a sense and of the evolution of the entropy with the step of the years.

Gravity Zero

Manuel Sánchez in his blog on microbiology proposes to us the most interesting article about the mechanism of the photosynthesis like union of quantum theory and the evolution.

Curiosities of the microbiology

Juan José Sáenz of the Tower tells us the history of as Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit established his famous temperatures scale.


Germán Fernandez announces the state of the astronomy to us in Spain with an extensive article about the newly inaugurated Big Telescope of Canaries – GranTeCan.

The Neutrino

Dark brown it tells to us that it is the Drake equation, it clarifies to us the meaning of each of his variables and his evolution with the step of the years.

Noxbrús Lair

Alejandro with his history Cardano in the Workshop shows the face that not always is seen of the science, that after complex concepts the work and the persons' passion is.

Obsolete technology

Gerardo Blanco from Argentinian explains in depth on which it is the heat and the meaning of his magnitude, the temperature to us. Also he speaks to us about the evolution of these concepts throughout the years and of up to where we could have come in the laboratories.

News of cosmo

Francis explains to us the physics of the bosón of Higgs using the refraction index in optics.

Francis The Emule News

Fernando with a title that makes a mistake with the rabid actuality, tells us how the shoemakers can support themselves on the water and gait thanks to the superficial tension.

Saragossa Source

Miguel Garcia introduces us in the history of the energy, from the caloric one up to the joule.

Pandora's memories

Tito Eliatron refreshes the memory to us with the laws of Kepler that govern the movement of the planets and, for the most bold, it demonstrates the second Kepler law departing from the Law of Universal Gravitation of Newton with the help of distinguishing equations.

Tito Eliatron

Pedro Gomez-Esteban in pone the morello cherry to his moníográfico on the electricity with an article about that happens when we exhibit our body to the current, from an electrical burn to the ventricular fibrillation. If you like the article, I recommend to you earnestly 9 articles that him precede.

The Sifter

DarkSapiens in Critical Thinking clarifies to us that the ground is round since there are the people who, although it looks like a lie, keeps on defending that is flat but one there is a conspiracy so that we think that it is spherical.

Critical Thinking

Isaías suárez offers us a video on what we know about the universe to realize that, paraphrasing Sagan, we are only a blue puntito.

isr zone

Verónica Casanova speaks to us on the structure of the universe, the geometry that we use to describe it and what “gives him form” to the universe.

Astrophysics and Physics

Hominids he speaks to us about Albert Eintein and his revolutionary exposition of the space - time.


Unyielding he explains to us, with the help of an impressive video, the real motive for which it looks like the astronauts that they are not submitted by force of the gravity.


OndaSolitaria reveals another mystery to us speaking to us on the beams give integrators that the villains keep in his cellars and the guns of protons.

Physics in the Science fiction

Benedictine speaks to us a little about that so dangerous called radioactivity, which allows us to obtain energy to evolve and at the same time, capably of destroying from a cancer to an entire country. Far from the area zero of a bomb, of a nuclear power plant or of the room of radiotherapy we are surrounded with radioactivity, at major levels than we think ourselves

Quantum universe

Joaquin Sevilla describes the movement of the horses to us from a less equestrian point of view.

Joaquin Sevilla

I gnawed he makes use of the first images of the satellite SMOS of THAT ONE to explain ourselves how the Theory of the Black Body allows us to obtain information water cycle of our planet.

Gravity Zero

Evaristo demonstrates to us how to calculate according to the measurements of a lamp the figure hyperbolic that it will project his light on the walls.


To part of the articles, also I would like noticing the interest of some blogueros to which we get ready late and they did not have time to write an article, but they have promised to take part in next editions.

Pere Estupinyà, of Scientific Notes from the MIT, could not have taken part in this edition because we warn it with to two days of the end of the carnival but it offers us an interesting entry that he wrote in February on which it would happen if one of many things for that the LHC was designed, to find the slippery Higgs bosón, was finding other of the particle accelerators, like for example Tevatron the American.

Scientific notes from the MIT

Neither has been able Carlos Escobar of The Hour Zero, since we have caught it little background, but I would like being grateful for his interest offering an entry of his blog with the Agenda of the LHC for this anyo 2010.

The Hour Zero

Finally to be grateful to some that could not have informed his support and interest: Julio de Gluon Con Leche, Iñaki of enchufa2, Vicente de El tao of the physics and honorable Emilio SIlvera Vazquez.

To close the fourth edition you would like proposing the last video of Symphony of Science, which yesterday we could see in Sorprendible.

Again thanks to all those who make the Carnival of the Physics possible.

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